The ocean is the origin of life. There are more than 200,000 species of creatures in the ocean, including about 180,000 species of animals and more than 20,000 species of plants. There are 25,000 species of fish in animals and more than 200 species of fish for human consumption. The ocean can provide human beings with green energy. The potential of ocean energy resources is quite large, including tidal energy, wave energy, temperature difference energy, salt difference energy, ocean current energy, tidal current energy, etc. According to estimates by American scholars, the theoretical reserves of ocean energy in the world are more than 1500×108kW, and 73.8×108kW can be developed and utilized, including 27×108kW of wave energy, 20×108kW of temperature difference energy, 26×108kW of salt difference energy, and 26×108kW of ocean current energy. 0.5×108kW, tidal energy 0.3×108kW. The ocean is an important channel for water transportation. Although international ocean cargo transportation has the shortcomings of low speed and high risk, it has become the main mode of transportation in international trade due to its large capacity, large volume, low freight, and strong adaptability to goods. 80% to 90% of my country's total import and export cargo transportation is carried out by ocean transportation. The ocean has brought so many benefits to our life and production, and more and more large-scale development of the ocean has also caused harm to the ocean. On the other hand, it has always been seen as a bottomless pit for dumping waste, while at the same time relying on its inexhaustible source of rainwater. In fact, the ocean itself is very fragile, and its self-purification ability is limited. Recently, there are more and more signs that the ocean can no longer withstand continuous pollution, and we must protect the ocean. Ports, wharves, loading and unloading stations and ships that load and unload oil must prepare oil spill pollution emergency plans and be equipped with corresponding oil spill pollution emergency marine environmental protection equipment.
Exhaust gas cleaning mainly refers to the treatment of industrial waste gas such as dust particles, smoke and dust, odorous gases, and toxic and harmful gases generated in industrial places. Common waste gas purification includes factory dust and waste gas purification, workshop dust and waste gas purification, organic waste gas purification, waste gas odor purification, acid-base waste gas purification, chemical waste gas purification, etc. A complete exhaust gas cleaning system generally consists of five parts, which are the exhaust gas collection device (gas collecting hood) that captures the polluted gas, the pipes connecting the various components of the system, the purification device that purifies the polluted gas, and provides power for the gas flow The ventilator makes full use of the atmospheric diffusion dilution ability to reduce pollution of the chimney. The exhaust gas cleaning system is a system that uses exhaust ventilation to control the diffusion of air pollutants in the production plant. The purification device adopts different treatment methods and devices according to different treatment objects (such as dust-containing gas, harmful gas in the sea, flammable and explosive gas, etc.). At present, the commonly used exhaust gas purification methods include condensation method, combustion method, adsorption method and absorption method, etc., which are set at local pollution sources, collect pollutants in the air, and discharge them outdoors or at high altitudes after purification. It is the most effective and common method for producing and controlling air pollution.
Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is a means of converting nitrogen oxides, also referred to as NOx with the aid of a catalyst into diatomic nitrogen (N2), and water (H2O). A reductant, typically anhydrous ammonia (NH3), aqueous ammonia (NH4OH), or a urea (CO(NH2)2) solution, is added to a stream of flue or exhaust gas and is reacted onto a catalyst. As the reaction drives toward completion, nitrogen (N2), and carbon dioxide (CO2), in the case of urea use, are produced. Selective catalytic reduction of NOx using ammonia as the reducing agent was patented in the United States by the Engelhard Corporation in 1957. Development of SCR technology continued in Japan and the US in the early 1960s with research focusing on less expensive and more durable catalyst agents. The first large-scale SCR was installed by the IHI Corporation in 1978. Commercial exhaust gas SCR systems are typically found on large utility boilers, industrial boilers, and municipal solid waste boilers and have been shown to reduce NOx by 70-95%. More recent applications include diesel engines, such as those found on large ships, diesel locomotives, gas turbines, and even automobiles. Several nitrogen-bearing reductants are currently used in SCR applications including anhydrous ammonia, aqueous ammonia or dissolved urea. All those three reductants are widely available in large quantities.
Water treatment is any process that improves the quality of water to make it appropriate for a specific end-use. The end use may be drinking, industrial water supply, irrigation, river flow maintenance, water recreation or many other uses, including being safely returned to the environment. Water treatment removes contaminants and undesirable components, or reduces their concentration so that the water becomes fit for its desired end-use. This treatment is crucial to human health and allows humans to benefit from both drinking and irrigation use. Elimination of hazardous chemicals from the water, many treatment procedures have been applied. The selection of water treatment systems is contingent on a number of factors: (1)The degree to which a method is necessary to raise the waste water quality to a permissible level; (2) The control method's flexibility; (3) The process's cost; and (4) The process's environmental compatibility. The processes involved in removing the contaminants include physical processes such as settling and filtration, chemical processes such as disinfection and coagulation, and biological processes such as slow sand filtration. A combination selected from the following processes (depending on the season and contaminants and chemicals present in the raw water) is used for municipal drinking water treatment worldwide. Chemical approaches are used in addition to physical and biological measures to reduce the discharge of pollutants and waste water into water bodies. Different chemical procedures for the conversion into final products or the removal of pollutants are used for the safe disposal of contaminants. 1. Pre-chlorination for algae control and arresting biological growth; 2. Aeration along with pre-chlorination for removal of dissolved iron when present with relatively small amounts of manganese; 3. Disinfection for killing bacteria, viruses and other pathogens, using chlorine, ozone and ultra-violet light.
Electro-chlorination system is the syetem of producing hypochlorite by passing electric current through salt water. This disinfects the water and makes it safe for human use, such as for drinking water or swimming pools. The process of electrochlorination is simple. It is the electrolysis of saltwater to produce a chlorinated solution. The first step is removing any solids from the saltwater. Next, the saltwater streams through an electrolyzer cell's channel of decreasing thickness. One side of the channel is a cathode, the other is an anode. A low voltage DC current is applied, electrolysis happens producing sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen gas (H2). The solution travels to a tank that separates the hydrogen gas based on its low density. Only water and ordinary salt, (sodium chloride (NaCl)) are used. The product of the process, sodium hypochlorite, provides 0.7% to 1% chlorine. Anything below the concentration of 1% chlorine is considered a non-hazardous chemical although still a very effective disinfectant. The sodium hypochlorite produced is in the range of pH 6-7.5, relatively neutral in regards to acidity or baseness. At that pH range, the sodium hypochlorite is relatively stable.